Worship Through History: Romantic (with tribute to Alan Woodward)

This year’s featured time period for our History through Worship Series is the Romantic Period. The Romantic Period began approximately in 1820. Some of the first signs of the Romantic movement occurred in Germany at the beginning of the nineteenth century through the writings of Goethe and Schiller. Music tends to be a more traditional art and often follows movements in visual art or philosophy by years or decades. Such was the case for music in the Romantic period. This evening’s concert will feature works from a mature Romantic Period. To some degree Mendelssohn serves as a bridge to late Romantic writers, having served as a mentor and supporter of their music. No doubt Brahms was influenced by the elder Mendelssohn. Mendelssohn by way of his interest in reviving the music of J. S. Bach became perhaps the most important organ revivalist of the Romantic Period. The primary piece featured in this evening’s concert is Brahms’ Requiem.

Brahms began writing musical reflections on death after the passing of his mother in 1865. Some have suggested that the death of Schumann, his close friend, almost a decade earlier was also an inspiration for the piece. Although Brahms was probably not a Christian, the exemplary artistic setting of powerful scriptures related to death reflects the hegemonic influence of Lutheranism in Brahms’ setting. The work is distinctly Lutheran in two senses: 1) The piece clearly reflects an intimate knowledge of scripture by Brahms, as opposed to preselected text, which are featured in Catholic Requiems and 2) The work is distinctly hopeful in comparison to Roman Catholic Requiems. One can hardly imagine that Brahms did not believe in the Resurrection when listening to the sixth movement, and it must be recognized that Brahms was possibly struggling with belief in a time of deep German theological questioning of fundamental Christian beliefs. If Pelikan noted that Bach wrote in a challenging Enlightenment mindset of “I believe, O Lord, Help my unbelief,”¹ just imagine the challenging philosophical milieu in which Brahms wrote.

Brahms’ writing, like Mendelssohn, is a historical review in and of itself. For example, movements II and IV end with fugal celebrations of highest praise, reminiscent of Bach or Handel. The brief but stunning a cappella  sections might reference gentle and controlled counterpoint by Palestrina.² Brahms also assimilated the best of writing from his era. For example, the fourth movement contains sparkling otherworldly orchestration that is similar to early orchestrations by Mendelssohn.

Yet, Brahms’ writing had matured by the time of the Requiem to a summation far beyond the juxtaposition of past models. Indeed, he was a giant among his peers.

This work holds personal significance for me tonight. Just as a composer releases emotions associated with death into his or her craft, so I have felt compelled in recent months to turn to one of the greatest reflective works of art on death in human history. Forty-two years ago my parents brought me to my first home, my first community just a few steps from where I stand tonight, on Iroquois Street, the street where I now live. My father,  Charles Alan Woodward, completed a ThD in New Testament here at NOBTS in 1980. At a time when some of our seminaries were facing challenges to theological thought, Alan pursued a dissertation to defend the veracity of Christ’s words in Mark 4:10-12. Truly, Alan’s passion for the Word defined him in home and in the church. He demonstrated an extraordinary servant-laced love for his wife, Frances and served four churches as pastor for over thirty years, including what was formerly Highland Baptist Church in Metairie for seven years and First Baptist Ellisville for twenty-three years. He ended his ministry serving the MS Baptist Convention as the Pastoral Leadership director, serving for eight years until just three months before his passing. I will never forget that one of Dad’s last pleas was for prayer that he would honor His Lord as his brain tumor and treatment began to have devastating effects on his conscious decisions. God answered our prayer as Dad passed from glory to glory.

One of the most important lessons I learned from my father was that the academic process, even at a doctoral level, mainly teaches one how to learn. Even with the drastic changes in method for research and writing since his time at NOBTS, which included placing dissertation drafts on Greyhound buses, to get clean copies back in time, the principles of excellent research and writing have not changed. In a similar manner, although Church Music has changed a good deal since the time of Brahms, the principles for essential musicianship have remained relatively stable. While musicians in Europe and particularly in Germany were marching quickly to the apex and end of Western common practice, American musicians were seeking to establish communities of functional musicianship that could appreciate great works of art and fully participate in congregational singing. A key pioneer in this effort was Lowell Mason, who is widely considered the first American public music educator.

Mason convinced the Boston Public School System to include music in their curriculum partly because it would increase and enhance students’ participation in church and community music. Mason believed every child should experience music, reflecting a unique commitment to musical independence.  One could view Mason’s zeal as an extension of Luther’s desire for all Germans to be able to read the Bible.

1. Jaroslav Pelikan, “Bach Among the Theologians” (Philadelphia: Fortress Press).

2. Virginia Hancock, “Brahm’s Choral Compositions and His Library of Early Music” (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press), 12, 65; Brahms  library contained personal transcriptions of Palestrina as well as transcriptions of Palestrina by Robert Schumann.



History of Worship Lecture

The the following lectures are associated with a worship leadership class at NOBTS, but I would like to invite all who might be interested in growing in their understanding of historical movements in worship history. These first podcasts are quite low-technique so thank you in advance for your patience–I believe you will be able to hear the information clearly, which of course is the primary focus of these recordings: history of worship lecture 1 history of worship lecture 2 and history of worship lecture 3, history of worship lecture 4, and history of worship lecture 5, history of worship lecture 6, history of worship lecture 7a, and history of worship lecture 7b.

(i)ncarnational Worship

The attached documents explain the philosophical underpinnings of this site (Incarnation chpt 1; The incarnation of worship chpt 2). At the end of chapter 2, I present a list of the foundations of worship leadership preparation. Although, I believe the worship leader will want to grow in each of these areas to move toward maturity as a worship leader (no music items are mentioned because this document was written for worship leaders of all types, including lead pastor), the one item that should appear  to missing is the following: prayer. Even if one has all of the knowledge-based/wisdom-based tools, these tools will prove ineffective without the power of God. Often God has been gracious to me and allowed for impactful worship without the necessary prayer preparation, but I am increasingly convinced that I fail to see what could happen in worship because of my laziness in prayer. May we seal our commitment to acquiring these tools with fervent prayer. Please know that if you are not in the Worship Leadership or Planning and Leading Worship FAll 2012 classes at NOBTS, you are still invited to comment on these documents or ask for further explanation.

The Boy from Miami

About  47 years ago my dad was likely invited to join a gracious  family for Thanksgiving Dinner when he  attended William Carey in Hattiesburg. This year God brought a Miami boy to NOBTS. His name is Nick and its  a great privilege to have him in our home today. Things have changed a bit  in 47 years. Nick is a rapper from Miami who passionately posits justice but  most importantly the Gospel through his favorite medium. Nick is very much the face of the future  of evangelical ministry in our country (comfortable in the city, Latino, enjoying life, willing  to work hard, and loving Jesus) and we are thankful that he has  decided to be a part of the NOBTS family. No one could have imagined what bounty God would bring to a young man willing to follow God’s Call to “Go West Young Man” 47 years ago: Three Woodward boys and their families teaching and ministering in 2014 is a window into this bounty. And who knows what God might do through this young man in our  home today in future years: let’s pray to that end.

Soul Competency: Through the lens of Worship Art

The position of soul competency is arguably the most important Baptist distinctive among a range of core beliefs that Southern Baptists hold in common with the evangelical community. E. Y. Mullins defined soul competency as follows: “The sufficient statement of the historical significance of the Baptist is this: The competency of the soul in religion. Of this means a competency under God, not a competency in the sense of human self-efficiency.”[1] Of particular interest to students of worship are the implications of soul competency to the church as a worshiping community. Some have argued for example that the notion of soul competency was inherent in the impassioned appeal by American Founders, particularly Baptists, in their call for religious freedom in the First Amendment. One could argue that soul competency is the high mark of viable answers to the question of religious freedom among all religious responses to the political state from the Reformation to the Enlightenment to the present.

The pieces included in tonight’s concert represent best practices at critical junctures of ever-expanding freedoms in worship practice, beginning with the Protestant Reformation. For example, the Tallis settings are a fascinating offering in the midst of a quickly emerging Reformed English Church. The title might suggest something akin to Burgeois’ Psalter, associated with Calvin’s leadership, yet these Psalm settings are distinctly English. And one could argue more incarnate in their practical appeal to English 17th century senses. Bach’s Cantatas are fully matured worship settings that have moved well beyond the emergence of the German chorale as a response to the reign of Latin texts in Western worship. It would be hard to argue that any Protestant composer exceeded Bach in the combination of rich theology and high art. Brahms takes up the Bach mantle in the Romantic period pressing the utter limits of harmonic text painting as an extension of Bach’s melodic text painting. In the case of Bach and Brahms, the religious art is timeless and noteworthy among all Protestant works of art conceived up to that point and thereafter. Ironically, this golden age of Lutheran Christian art was increasingly moving toward rationalism, which tends to place the congregation in the role of a “public” that is addressed through moralistic teaching.[2] Although hymn singing was still prominent during Bach’s era, the increasing importance of high art through the cantata perhaps lent itself toward reflection and increasingly less passionate participation. Certainly, by the time of Brahm’s sacred choral settings in Vienna, late 19th century, “traditional ritual and music” was “often more a habit than a conviction,”[3] no matter how exquisite his motets.

But if one were to look across the Atlantic at about the same time Brahms was writing some of the greatest art music known to man, a little blind lady was busy composing some of the greatest hymn texts ever to be embraced by the Evangelical church. Our Methodist friends are quite glad, I’m sure, that we could do no better than to celebrate the hymn texts of Fanny Crosby as a high mark of Evangelical, Revivalist writing. Although Fanny was not an expositor of the theological concept of soul competency, her emergence and accomplishment is an ideal example of the impact of the concept of soul competency in the evangelical church, particularly in America. As much as liberal theologians seek to find a voice for women from the humanities to the sciences, one need look no further than Evangelicals in America for a people who first championed a woman’s soul competency before God as a proclaimer of truth. While       Southern Baptists in particular are sometimes criticized for their position on women in a lead pastoral role, they have quietly provided a framework for generations of female proclaimers of the Word through song.

Similarly, the African-American spiritual and later the Black Gospel genre became pictures of soul freedom. And again, Baptists play a critical role in the 21st century with African-American pastors who call their communities to account for their souls before God and by extension call their communities to break from the enslavement of a system of poverty of the soul, mind, and body. Thus, our concert will end with a tribute to Moses Hogan.[4]


[1] E.Y. Mullins, The Axioms of Religion, ed. C. Douglas Weaver (Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, rev. ed. 2010), 64.


[2] Hans-Christoph Schmidt-Lauber, “The Lutheran Tradition in the German Lands,” in The Oxford History of Christian Worship, ed. Geoffrey  Wainwright and Karen B. Westerfield Tucker (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 408.


[3] Conrad L. Donakowski, “The Age of Revolutions,” in The Oxford History of Christian Worship, ed. Geoffrey Wainwright and Karen B. Westerfield Tucker (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 383.


[4] Woodward originally presented Elijah Rock with the Pascagoula High School Choir in New Orleans in 1999 at     Franklin Avenue Baptist Church. Moses Hogan, who died in 2007, graciously agreed to work with the Pascagoula High School group.

It Matters: The Church as the Greatest Caring Institution in the History of the World

In the South there  are certain rituals we participate  in almost without thinking: weddings, funerals, and Friday night football to name a few. Because of these beautiful and strong traditions one can expect a certain response as a son of the South at the passing of a loved one. Our family (the Woodward family–I am speaking here as a son of Dr. Charles Alan Woodward) was reminded in a profound  way this past weekend  that some rituals, or at least on some occasions, our  rituals can move beyond tradition to the incarnational reality of the church being the hands and  feet of Jesus. When Dad transitioned to eternal glory last week there was no question in our mind that  we would  celebrate his life at the  church where the majority of his ministry occurred: FBC Ellisville. As we pulled up to  the church Friday night for the visitation, we were ushered into a fellowship area where dear friends had prepared food for us and greeted us with great concern. Then for over three hours person after person expressed concern for mom, the three boys, and the grandchildren, with particular concern our having lost dad at a relatively young age by today’s standards (66).  Then we were taken to a friend of the family and member of the church’s home, where more food and care awaited us. On Saturday morning we could  barely get out of the vehicle when loving folks came to embrace particularly mom as we moved toward the sanctuary. I am purposefully only mentioning two names to give honor to the sacredness of service others provided. The gracious pastor,  Dr. Brashier, gladly opened the church to us during this difficult  time, and Bro. Robert Fennell, a mentor to all three Woodward boys and long-time friend of the family, carefully provided every need for the worship celebration. After the graveside service, we were invited back to the church to the comfort of food and fellowship. I watched  other ladies of the church, again long-time friends of our  family work tirelessly to serve our family.

One of my favorite comments that was made regarding Dad’s legacy, which came particularly from guys my age, was that Dad as pastor at First Ellisville, helped bring us to together  as a community built on something beyond ourselves. Truly, the church is a picture  of this reality. My friends were right in saying we needed this as preteens and throughout our developmental years. But now I am learning through experience that we need it just as much as big boys as we face tragedies. Please don’t misunderstand my meaning here: Theologically, the church is a concept that was birthed in the heart and mind of God that expands the seminal institution of family, namely the family of Israel, to all who have sincerely accepted Jesus Christ as Savior and Lord. It is the institution uniquely designed by God to care for our physical, emotional, and spiritual needs. (Don’t read too much into physical although historically the church has rightly led the way in this category pretty much since the Resurrection.)

I offer this theological definition to say we can understand the concept of the church and even experience it over a lifetime and yet be blown away during  the care of the beautiful bride of Christ during our darkest hours. And as the conceptual idea of church becomes incarnational reality may we recognize the beauty of the church and give God the glory. May we say to ourselves and our family members as instruments in this body: It Matters. Our role in the church matters. From the ladies who help change diapers, to the 5th grade Sunday School teacher (Mr. Copeland in my case), to the consistent servants who make sure  the baptismal details are in order, to the servant-teams that provides meals at funerals, to the evangelism teams that go out in various ways, to the choir members, to the ushers, to sound tech guys, and deacon’s wives . . . it all matters.

And as perfect as the handling of our delicate situation was carried out by the fine folks at First Baptist Ellisville, I am starting to figure something out as old friends from Highland Baptist Church in Metairie, and new friends at First Baptist New Orleans and Crosspoint (brother’s Jon’s church), and friends from past churches like First Baptist Helen and First Baptist Havana, and the wonderful folks at First Baptist Brandon (brother Charlie and mom’s current home church), and pastors/staff from a myriad of churches express concern in person and through social media–I am starting to figure out that this church thing is not unique to one place or time or culture. When we do church the way Christ intended for it to be done, according to the NT, the church truly becomes the greatest caring institution in the history of the world, and much more than that as the Lord uses His church to fit us for heaven.

It is exactly the church that causes me to know that my mother will eventually settle into a healthy rhythm and routine on the outskirts of Brandon MS. There will be the precious folks from her Sunday school class, checking in on her and precious ladies from her  church who have walked the same path who come along beside her. No doubt this is part of what Paul yearned for when he said again and again in his letters that he wanted us to attain full maturity and knowledge in Christ. The knowledge does relate to theology but it is also a working knowledge of how the church family is to love each other. So the next time you are tempted to say to yourself, does this small thing I am doing in my local church really matter? Rest assured based on the principles of His Word and the time-tested realities of the hands and feet of Jesus that it matters. It really, really matters.

Thank you so much First Baptist Ellisville, thank you First Baptist Brandon, thank you First Baptist New Orleans, thank you Crosspoint Church in Gulfport and thank you to the many others who have connected  to Dad and mom or their boys along the way for your  tremendous love expressed in word and deed.


On behalf of the Woodward family,

Greg Woodward

The (i)ncarnation of Worship

The article attached is the philosophical underpinning for this blog: (I)ncarnation chpt 1 and (I)ncarnation chpt 2.


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